हरियाणा में खेतीहर महिलाऐ कठिन मेहनत करती हैं।अपना चुलहा जलाने के लिये उनहें बहुत दुर से लकङियाँलानी पङती हैं। में किये
गये एक शोध में निचे दिये परिणामपाये गये हैं, शोध की पुरी विधि यहाँ पर दि गई है।
Haryana women carrying bundle of fuel-wood
Surveys have been carried out in the two villages of Haryana state of India in the year 1991 and 2001 under the state scheme entitled “Housing and Health conditions in rural areas of Haryana”, to assess the health and housing conditions of mothers and their preschool children (2-6 years of age), of changes that have taken place over a decade. Quality assessment of houses was done through scores in accordance with the prescribed standard for rural housing recommendations by Environmental Hygiene committee (1949) and National Building Organizations (1968).According to scores obtaine by houses they were categorized as “good”, “fair” and “poor”.
Health status of the respondent and preschooler (2-6 years of age) children was assessed as per the methods of Jelliffee (1996), through anthropometric measurements and compared with the recommended standards of Indian Council of Medical Research standards( 1971), to categorize the health status as “good”, “fair” and “poor”.
Results revealed that majority of the houses (56.66%) had fair conditions rest 33.00% houses were rated as good and 13.33% houses were found poor in the year 1991. where as 84 per cent houses were rated as good and 16 percent as fair none was rated as poor in the year 2001. Provision of separate kitchen, size of kitchen, type of cook stove, type of fuel used, were taken as the aspects of houses surveyed and assigned scores, the changes in these aspects extracted for this document.
The socio economic condition was high for 25 percent of the respondents only in 1991 which was increased to 54 percent in 2001. Literacy among rural women surveyed was 27 percent in the year 1991 it increased to 72 percent in the year 2001.
The housing conditions have shown considerable changes over this period of time. Separate kitchen was provided in 77.66 percent of houses, and only 1.66 percent of kitchens were having more than 15 sq feet floor in 1991, while in the year 2001 separate kitchen was provided in 97 percent of houses and floor area of kitchen increased to more than 15 square feet in 23 percent houses. In the year 2001 almost 90 percent of the houses were having smokeless cook stoves in their kitchens as against only 10 percent houses in the year 1991.Smoke out let was provided in 35 percent of the kitchens in the year 1991 as against 99 percent in the year 2001. Biomass fuel (cotton sticks, twigs and cow dung cakes) were used as fuel in their cook stoves in ordinary cook stoves as well as in smoke less cook stoves in both the surveys which were conducted over a decade. None of the families used LPG gas in 1991 whereas as many as 53 .4 percent used it in 2001 along with biomass fuel in ordinary as well as in smoke-less-cook stoves.
There has been an increase in the good health status of women and their preschool children from 43.33 percent and 35.36 percent respectively in 1991 to 66 percent and 55.34 percent respectively in the year 2001. In the year 1991 none of the women respondents were rated as poor health status all were in good or average health status, while 10.66 percent pre school children were rated in poor health status in the year 1991 and none of the preschool child was fall in the category of poor health in the year 2001.
The association between grading of houses and social class was found to be significant (= 12.22, DF= 2, p>0.05) in both the studies. It is to conclude that the rural home maker is making use of better furnishings as cook stoves in their kitchen resulted in improving their health conditions and the health of their younger children who roam around them while she works in her kitchen. The socio economic conditions (r =0.496) of the family and literacy level (r = 0.426) were positively and significantly correlated with housing conditions of the family of the respondents.
Ergonomic evaluation of collection of fuel wood
During the survey in the year 2001 ergonomic evaluation of women collecting fuel (20 percent of the sample who belongs to landless families) wood was done. Following instruments were used for making evaluation:
Time- Stop watch
Posture – Felxicurve
Weight of fuel- Weighing balance
Musculo-skeletal problems- Body Map of Grand gin (1980)
Activity profile: Head load was the mode of carrying the fuel wood. Women carried an average of 40.4 kg load of fuel wood. On an average a women spent 3 hours once a week on collection and bringing of fuel wood. While she travels a distance of 2 to 5 km for collection and bringing fuel wood. A woman walked at a speed of 4.1 km/hr during onward journey of collection of fuel wood while it was 3.3 km/hr for backward journey. The walking speed of the women decreased during backward journey as she carried a load of 40.4kg on her head.
Spinal curvature at cervical and lumber region: The angles at cervical and lumber region were taken to find out the effect of load carrying on anterior-posterior spinal curvature, and during collection of fuel wood. The percentage deviation in the cervical region from normal posture was 2.82%. It was 1.49% during backward journey when she had load of fuel wood on her head.
Musculo-skeletal problems: Musculo skeletal problems were determined on the basis of human body map at five point scale ranging from mild pain to very sever. On an average respondents reported sever pain in calf muscles (m.s=4.2), thighs and shoulders (4.0). sever to moderate pain was also observed in neck, palm, fingers& lower extremities by the respondents.
When I conducted the survey in 1991 for my M.Sc.( Family Resource Management) research work on the topic granted to me by the Project In charge and my guide of the state project entitled “ Housing and Health conditions in rural Areas Of Haryana State of India”. I was so touched by the condition of the rural women and decided to explore their condition after a decade and again and again, as the country am on the process of development. In the year 1991 I observed that even in prosperous peoples Havelis (old big houses) the concept of kitchen, a place to bath were absolutely absent. In the year 2001 I observed drastic changes in the villages. I think several factors play to transform the prosperity of the community, like increase in literacy rate, governmental efforts to provide infrastructural facilities, natural phenomena’s (in the year 1991 the tube well water i.e. the underground water of the area was not conducive for irrigation. While in the year 2001 there were several tube wells irrigating their farmland. The assumption was that near the irrigated canals after 10-20 years the underground water become good and sweet may be due to seepage of canal water. The prosperity of the people leads to adopet better facilities in the houses of the rural community. On other hand people with little means, face hardships, the ergonomic evaluation of collection of fuel shows that this activity is very difficult and deteriorates the body of the worker who is women only. There is a need to explore methods to help the needy persons of the society so that they can live prestigious lives.
Government of India 1949, Report of Environmental Hygiene Committee. In Dhar et.al.(1971). Aindia JMR. 59(3): 1906=1919.
Grandjean E. 1980. Fitting the task to man- An Ergonomic approach Francia and Tylor Ltd. London.
National Building Organization, 1968. Hand book of Housing and Village Planning. p-71. New Delhi: Ministry of Works, Housing and Supply.
Jelliffee, D B.1966. The assessment of Nutritional Staus of Community. WHO. Monograph series No-3.
ICMR, 1972. Growth and Physical Development of Indian infants and children Tech. Rep. series No- 18 .Medical Inclave, N- Delhi: 101-103.