Thursday, July 16, 2009

Fuel wood collection is really a drudgery in rural Haryana

हरियाणा में खेतीहर महिलाऐ कठिन मेहनत करती हैं।अपना चुलहा जलाने के लिये उनहें बहुत दुर से लकङियाँलानी पङती हैं। में किये
गये एक शोध में निचे दिये परिणामपाये गये हैं, शोध की पुरी विधि यहाँ पर दि गई है।

Haryana women carrying bundle of fuel-wood

Surveys have been carried out in the two villages of Haryana state of India in the year 1991 and 2001 under the state scheme entitled “Housing and Health conditions in rural areas of Haryana”, to assess the health and housing conditions of mothers and their preschool children (2-6 years of age), of changes that have taken place over a decade. Quality assessment of houses was done through scores in accordance with the prescribed standard for rural housing recommendations by Environmental Hygiene committee (1949) and National Building Organizations (1968).According to scores obtaine by houses they were categorized as “good”, “fair” and “poor”.
Health status of the respondent and preschooler (2-6 years of age) children was assessed as per the methods of Jelliffee (1996), through anthropometric measurements and compared with the recommended standards of Indian Council of Medical Research standards( 1971), to categorize the health status as “good”, “fair” and “poor”.
Results revealed that majority of the houses (56.66%) had fair conditions rest 33.00% houses were rated as good and 13.33% houses were found poor in the year 1991. where as 84 per cent houses were rated as good and 16 percent as fair none was rated as poor in the year 2001. Provision of separate kitchen, size of kitchen, type of cook stove, type of fuel used, were taken as the aspects of houses surveyed and assigned scores, the changes in these aspects extracted for this document.
The socio economic condition was high for 25 percent of the respondents only in 1991 which was increased to 54 percent in 2001. Literacy among rural women surveyed was 27 percent in the year 1991 it increased to 72 percent in the year 2001.
The housing conditions have shown considerable changes over this period of time. Separate kitchen was provided in 77.66 percent of houses, and only 1.66 percent of kitchens were having more than 15 sq feet floor in 1991, while in the year 2001 separate kitchen was provided in 97 percent of houses and floor area of kitchen increased to more than 15 square feet in 23 percent houses. In the year 2001 almost 90 percent of the houses were having smokeless cook stoves in their kitchens as against only 10 percent houses in the year 1991.Smoke out let was provided in 35 percent of the kitchens in the year 1991 as against 99 percent in the year 2001. Biomass fuel (cotton sticks, twigs and cow dung cakes) were used as fuel in their cook stoves in ordinary cook stoves as well as in smoke less cook stoves in both the surveys which were conducted over a decade. None of the families used LPG gas in 1991 whereas as many as 53 .4 percent used it in 2001 along with biomass fuel in ordinary as well as in smoke-less-cook stoves.
There has been an increase in the good health status of women and their preschool children from 43.33 percent and 35.36 percent respectively in 1991 to 66 percent and 55.34 percent respectively in the year 2001. In the year 1991 none of the women respondents were rated as poor health status all were in good or average health status, while 10.66 percent pre school children were rated in poor health status in the year 1991 and none of the preschool child was fall in the category of poor health in the year 2001.
The association between grading of houses and social class was found to be significant (= 12.22, DF= 2, p>0.05) in both the studies. It is to conclude that the rural home maker is making use of better furnishings as cook stoves in their kitchen resulted in improving their health conditions and the health of their younger children who roam around them while she works in her kitchen. The socio economic conditions (r =0.496) of the family and literacy level (r = 0.426) were positively and significantly correlated with housing conditions of the family of the respondents.
Ergonomic evaluation of collection of fuel wood
During the survey in the year 2001 ergonomic evaluation of women collecting fuel (20 percent of the sample who belongs to landless families) wood was done. Following instruments were used for making evaluation:
Distance- Pedometer
Time- Stop watch
Posture – Felxicurve
Weight of fuel- Weighing balance
Musculo-skeletal problems- Body Map of Grand gin (1980)
Activity profile: Head load was the mode of carrying the fuel wood. Women carried an average of 40.4 kg load of fuel wood. On an average a women spent 3 hours once a week on collection and bringing of fuel wood. While she travels a distance of 2 to 5 km for collection and bringing fuel wood. A woman walked at a speed of 4.1 km/hr during onward journey of collection of fuel wood while it was 3.3 km/hr for backward journey. The walking speed of the women decreased during backward journey as she carried a load of 40.4kg on her head.
Spinal curvature at cervical and lumber region: The angles at cervical and lumber region were taken to find out the effect of load carrying on anterior-posterior spinal curvature, and during collection of fuel wood. The percentage deviation in the cervical region from normal posture was 2.82%. It was 1.49% during backward journey when she had load of fuel wood on her head.
Musculo-skeletal problems: Musculo skeletal problems were determined on the basis of human body map at five point scale ranging from mild pain to very sever. On an average respondents reported sever pain in calf muscles (m.s=4.2), thighs and shoulders (4.0). sever to moderate pain was also observed in neck, palm, fingers& lower extremities by the respondents.
When I conducted the survey in 1991 for my M.Sc.( Family Resource Management) research work on the topic granted to me by the Project In charge and my guide of the state project entitled “ Housing and Health conditions in rural Areas Of Haryana State of India”. I was so touched by the condition of the rural women and decided to explore their condition after a decade and again and again, as the country am on the process of development. In the year 1991 I observed that even in prosperous peoples Havelis (old big houses) the concept of kitchen, a place to bath were absolutely absent. In the year 2001 I observed drastic changes in the villages. I think several factors play to transform the prosperity of the community, like increase in literacy rate, governmental efforts to provide infrastructural facilities, natural phenomena’s (in the year 1991 the tube well water i.e. the underground water of the area was not conducive for irrigation. While in the year 2001 there were several tube wells irrigating their farmland. The assumption was that near the irrigated canals after 10-20 years the underground water become good and sweet may be due to seepage of canal water. The prosperity of the people leads to adopet better facilities in the houses of the rural community. On other hand people with little means, face hardships, the ergonomic evaluation of collection of fuel shows that this activity is very difficult and deteriorates the body of the worker who is women only. There is a need to explore methods to help the needy persons of the society so that they can live prestigious lives.

Government of India 1949, Report of Environmental Hygiene Committee. In Dhar Aindia JMR. 59(3): 1906=1919.
Grandjean E. 1980. Fitting the task to man- An Ergonomic approach Francia and Tylor Ltd. London.
National Building Organization, 1968. Hand book of Housing and Village Planning. p-71. New Delhi: Ministry of Works, Housing and Supply.
Jelliffee, D B.1966. The assessment of Nutritional Staus of Community. WHO. Monograph series No-3.
ICMR, 1972. Growth and Physical Development of Indian infants and children Tech. Rep. series No- 18 .Medical Inclave, N- Delhi: 101-103.

Monday, July 13, 2009

Helpness and kindness never wasted

This millennium is the era of Globalisation and all the people of the world will come closer and closer with each other in times to come. This is the era when we should be closer and closer in hearts, seeing others in trouble we should help them helping someone out of trouble is ;a virtue itself, but a kindness is often returned in surprising measure.

Every year I used to visit my village house. Last year as soon as I opened my village home there was a profusion of scented roses. Then we come to our backyard to my surprise in a comparatively neglected corner I saw a red pool of flowers. “ what a marvellous show these male: I exclaimed.” How did these grow here “ my neighbour which accompanied me in my house laughed and says, don’t you remember, you planted them last year when you come to visit your house .
And I did remember that last time I found a packet of little , dried-up seeds, and I pushed them into the earth in my backyard. These red pool of beauty could result from such uncompromising beginnings, and one which we could apply as a rewarding truth through all over lives: sometimes , perhaps unthinkingly, we may sow seed, forget it and later be repaid, thousandfold, some little kindness, helpness an action or word is like a seed planted in some one’s heart and long after you may find that it has flourished and blossomed and been returned to you .
I can quote the example of history, when Rajput king Maharaja Partap was in trouble , his courtier Bhamashah, sacrificed all his wealth in the lap of king Maharaja Partap and the king was able to reorganise his army to fight against his animies. There are so many incidences of this type in our history.
Always Remember
· The child who turned to you for comfort and was not disappointed will not forget when he is an adult.
· The friend you helped through bad time, the boy or girl you fished out of trouble, the colleague who relied on your loyalty and was not failed, none of them will forget.
· It is true the seed you planted happened to fall on stony ground and withered, there will be others which have fallen “ into good ground, and brought forth fruit, some on hundred fold, some sixty fold, some forty fold.”
Once I was in a great trouble, I shall never forget the kindness and help of a friend who sprang to my help during that bad patch. It was a very bad patch indeed, coming on top of a personal sadness, when very aspect seemed gloomy, every road ahead blocked, and I literally did not know which way to turn. Then I thought of this friend. We had not met for some time, she was the person best situated to help me.
Her response to my request to was immediate and warm; with encouragement to give me heart and hope and by taking enormous trouble on my behalf, she hauled me out of the doldrums and set me on my feet again.
Later , when every thing was sunny again, I wrote to tell her grateful I was and to say how wonderfully kind she had been. I was astonished to receive her reply: “ as to who has been kind to whom,” “ I’ll never forget being sheltered me in your home when we most needed somewhere to stay.”
Immediate Help In Trouble
It was true, she had been drag out of house when her husband deceived her by taking ex-party divorce and then stay orders to vacate his house. She was temporarily homeless as her parents were on tour to abroad and she faced with the prospect of piling her family with her children into a caravan. Instead of my small apartment I was thankful to have her family live with me for a while. But that had all taken place fifteen years before I approached her with my request for help, that loan of shelter in my house had long since passed from my memory--- though not from Herr.
Now a days it is heard that no one will come to rescue you in trouble, all are the friends of palmy days. But it not true. It is really an admirable aim to be independent and self -reliant, but we all need help at some time. It is no disgrace in times of real trouble to ask for support, the only grave is kit we allow ourselves to forget or dismiss the kindness.
No one in this world can exist all alone. We all need others help, and there are always some who need our special contribution, our special understanding.
Virtue should be its own regard but the happy truth is that it is so often rewarded a hundredfold. If anyone needs a helping hand then we should give it , bescause in kindness and helpness to others is ever wasted ;and on those rare occasions when it is not rewarded we shall at least have contributed to the world’s pool of good will.

Monday, July 6, 2009


Paushtic Burfi

Wheat flour 150 gms
Bean 75 gms
Ground nuts 100 gms
Til 50 gms
Gur ( jaggery ) 200 gms
Ghee 150 gms

Method :
Roast wheat flour and besan in ghee till flavour comes.
Add gur and mix well, then add roasted til and roasted powdered ground nuts mix well and remove it from the fire.
Spread it on a greased plate and on cooling cut it into pieces.
Methi Muthia
Methi 100 gms
Wheat flour 150 gms
Besan 50 gms
Oil & mustard seeds 50 ml
Salt, red chilli powder, haldi and
dhania jeera powder to taste.

Method :
Chop methi and mix wheat flour besan and all the masala to wheat then add two tea spoon of foil and a little water and make a dough. Then prepare out of the dough. Steam them and cool them. Then cut in to pieces.

Sunday, July 5, 2009


Rani beta, please don’t touch the pickle bottle, you are in menstrual stage , it will spoil the pickle, shouted Rani’s grand mother. Myths like these are handed down from mother to daughter and fossi size, taking no note of changes in cooking techniques. I want to make the readers of Woman’s Era acquainted with the pickle preserving tricks. It is the proper method adopted which preserves the pickles for long time. In this article step-by-step method is given to make pickles properly. In this millennium it is necessary to give up all the myths like these menstrual stage stigmas. These stigmas should be shed from the society. The article given here, if followed properly while making pickles will give good results

Pickles are vegetables or fruit preserved in spices, salt, oil and spiced vineger, with their shape, and texture retained as far as possible. Pickles add interest to a meal, especially, to heavy fried food at lunch or dinner; they also stimulate gastric juices, thus aiding digestion. Although not very rich in nutrients, they make a vegetarian diet acceptable imparting savoury flavours to otherwise monotonous starchy diet. They may be of many different types, sweet or salt, pungent or blend, extra thick, and so on.
Pickling of vegetables involves the process of lactic fermentation. Here ordinary sugar percent in the vegetable is converted to lactic acid by certain bacteria lodged on theirs vegetables. Cabbage pickle popularly known as sauerkraut and cucumber pickle as gherkins are very popular in other countries ( methods to prepare them is given in the last paragraph of this article)

Preparation for pickle making
Use a large stainless-steel, aluminium or enamel saucepan. Do not use copper or brass pans, the vinegar will react with the matel and taint the preserve to give traces of the very poisonous salt, copper acetate.

Vegtables and fruits
Choose fresh young vegetables and firmly ripe fruits. Do not use any that are bruised or damaged. Always use the best and dry spices, good quality oil, best vinegar, which has an acetic acid content of at least 5%. Wash, drain and cut up the vegetables or according to the instructions in the recipe. Treat fruit according to kind---- remove the stone and cores, top and tail slit the peel through in several places, as through the fruit were going to be quartered. Always pot hot and sweet pickles immediately. Never leave pickles standing in a saucepan for longer than necessary.

Potting sealing and storing

Pack fruit or vegetables into dry wide necked jars, to within 1 inch or the top and pour on the oil or vinegar, leaving a ½ inch space at the top to prevent it touching the lid of the jar or bottle.
ª Cover and seal the jars or bottles at once. If metal covers are used, they must be lined
with waxed paper or coated inside with melted paraffin wax so that the oil or vinegar
does not come into direct contact with the metal.
ª Alternative coverings are corks wrapped in grease-proof paper; glass tops used with
preserving jars; and calico dipped in melted paraffin wax or coated with melted candle
ª The jars do not need sterilising after filling and covering, as the growth of bacteria is
prevented by the acid in the vinegar and by the salt &spices.
ª Pickles should be stored in a cool, dry, dark, but airy place, as exposure to sunlight
often spoils their colour, and they should always be lilt for 2-3 months before being
eaten, otherwise the flavour is not fully developed. Cabbage is an exception, for
it usually tastes better if it is eaten while it is still crisp.
ª For fruit pickles, keep surplus sweetened vinegar as they mature.

Sauerkraut (cabbage pickle)

For sauerkraut cabbage is cut into shreds and mixed with 2 percent salt and 1.0 per cent powdered mustard (rai) and packed tightly in glass jars for a week at room temperature. The cabbage pickle will turn sour ready after 6-7 days. The concentration of lactic acid is quite high in it and reaches to the level of 1.3 per cent.

Kanji (black carrot juice)

Mix black carrot slices with 8-10 times their weight with water adding 2 percent salt plus 1 percent mustard powder (rai). Kanji gets ready within 4-8 days depending upon the temperature. The fermentation also involves the production of lactic acid.
Gherkin (cucumber pickle)